Hist 1200

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: Liberal phase

Learning Objectives:

Understand the reasons for the outbreak of the French Revolution

Understand the principles of the liberal phase of the French Revolution

A Society of Estates

Causes of the French Revolution

Crisis of the Old Regime

Causes of the French Revolution

Crisis of the Old Regime

Long-term causes

Causes of the French Revolution

Crisis of the Old Regime

Long-term causes

Enlightenment

Public Sphere

Social change

Causes of the French Revolution

Crisis of the Old Regime

Long-term causes

Enlightenment

Public Sphere

Social change

Short-term causes

Financial crisis

Causes of the French Revolution

Crisis of the Old Regime

Long-term causes

Enlightenment

Public Sphere

Social change

Short-term causes

Financial crisis

Calling of the Estates General

Causes of the French Revolution

Crisis of the Old Regime

Long-term causes

Enlightenment

Public Sphere

Social change

Short-term causes

Financial crisis

Calling of the Estates General

“What is the Third Estate?”

“Reunion of the Three Estates,” 1789

French Revolution: Liberal Phase

The Third Estate declares itself the National Assembly

French Revolution: Liberal Phase

The Third Estate declares itself the National Assembly

The Storming of the Bastille

“Storming of the Bastille,” 1789

French Revolution: Liberal Phase

The Third Estate declares itself the National Assembly

The Storming of the Bastille

“Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen”

“Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen,” 1789

The representatives of the French people, organized as a National Assembly, believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man, in order that this declaration, being constantly before all the members of the Social body, shall remind them continually of their rights and duties; in order that the acts of the legislative power, as well as those of the executive power, may be compared at any moment with the objects and purposes of all political institutions and may thus be more respected, and, lastly, in order that the grievances of the citizens, based hereafter upon simple and incontestable principles, shall tend to the maintenance of the constitution and redound to the happiness of all. Therefore the National Assembly recognizes and proclaims, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man and of the citizen:

Selected Articles:

1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. […]

2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural an imprescriptible rights of man. These are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. […]

4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. […]

6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representatives, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects of punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.

7. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except […] according to the forms prescribed by law.

10. No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views […]

11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom […]

14. All the citizens have a right to decide, either personally or by their representatives, as to the necessity of the public contribution […]

French Revolution: Liberal Phase

The Third Estate declares itself the National Assembly

The Storming of the Bastille

“Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen”

Actions of the National Assembly

Active and passive citizens

Free market

Constitutional monarchy

The clergy’s oath

French Revolution: Liberal Phase

What was so revolutionary about the Revolution at this point?

Who was unhappy with these changes?

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